Reference Manual

 

Volume III

Interfaces Guide

 

 

Version 6.24

June 15th 2006

 

 

 

 


CLIPS Interfaces Guide

Version 6.24   June 15th 2006

 

CONTENTS

License Information....................................................................................................................... i

Preface............................................................................................................................................ iii

Acknowledgements...................................................................................................................... vii

Section 1 ‑ Introduction................................................................................................................ 1

Section 2 - CLIPS Windows Interface......................................................................................... 3

2.1 The File Menu...................................................................................................................... 4

2.1.1 New (Ctrl+N)............................................................................................................. 4

2.1.2 Open... (Ctrl+O)......................................................................................................... 4

2.1.3 Load... (Ctrl+L)........................................................................................................... 4

2.1.4 Load Batch.................................................................................................................. 5

2.1.5 Load Binary................................................................................................................ 5

2.1.6 Turn Dribble On......................................................................................................... 5

2.1.7 Close........................................................................................................................... 5

2.1.8 Save (Ctrl+S).............................................................................................................. 6

2.1.9 Save As....................................................................................................................... 6

2.1.10 Save Binary............................................................................................................... 6

2.1.11 Revert........................................................................................................................ 6

2.1.12 Page Setup................................................................................................................ 6

2.1.13 Print... (Ctrl+P)......................................................................................................... 6

2.1.14 Exit............................................................................................................................ 6

2.2 The Edit Menu..................................................................................................................... 7

2.2.1 Undo (Ctrl+Z)............................................................................................................. 7

2.2.2 Cut (Ctrl+X)............................................................................................................... 7

2.2.3 Copy (Ctrl+C)............................................................................................................. 7

2.2.4 Paste (Ctrl+V)............................................................................................................. 7

2.2.5 Delete.......................................................................................................................... 8

2.2.6 Select All..................................................................................................................... 8

2.2.7 Balance (Ctrl+B)......................................................................................................... 8

2.2.8 Comment (Ctrl+;)........................................................................................................ 8

2.2.9 Uncomment (Ctrl+U).................................................................................................. 8

2.2.10 Set Font..................................................................................................................... 8

2.3 The Buffer Menu................................................................................................................. 9

2.3.1 Find (Ctrl+F)............................................................................................................ 10

2.3.2 Replace (Ctrl+H)....................................................................................................... 10

2.3.3 Load Selection (Ctrl+K)............................................................................................ 11

2.3.4 Batch Selection (Ctrl+M).......................................................................................... 11

2.3.5 Load Buffer............................................................................................................... 11

2.4 The Execution Menu.......................................................................................................... 12

2.4.1 Reset (Ctrl+E)........................................................................................................... 12

2.4.2 Run (Ctrl+R)............................................................................................................. 12

2.4.3 Step (Ctrl+T)............................................................................................................. 12

2.4.4 Watch... (Ctrl+W)..................................................................................................... 13

2.4.5 Options..................................................................................................................... 14

2.4.6 Preferences................................................................................................................ 15

2.4.7 Clear CLIPS.............................................................................................................. 16

2.5 The Browse Menu............................................................................................................. 16

2.5.1 The Module Menu.................................................................................................... 17

2.5.2 Defrule Manager....................................................................................................... 17

2.5.3 Deffacts Manager...................................................................................................... 19

2.5.4 Deftemplate Manager................................................................................................ 19

2.5.5 Deffunction Manager................................................................................................ 20

2.5.6 Defglobals Manager.................................................................................................. 21

2.5.7 Defgeneric Manager.................................................................................................. 22

2.5.8 Defclass Manager..................................................................................................... 24

2.5.9 Definstances Manager............................................................................................... 27

2.5.10 Agenda Manager..................................................................................................... 27

2.6 The Window Menu............................................................................................................ 29

2.6.1 Cascade..................................................................................................................... 29

2.6.2 Tile Horizontally....................................................................................................... 29

2.6.3 Tile Vertically............................................................................................................ 29

2.6.4 Close All................................................................................................................... 29

2.6.5 Show Status Windows.............................................................................................. 30

2.6.6 Hide Status Windows............................................................................................... 30

2.6.7 Tile Dialog & Status Windows................................................................................. 30

2.6.8 Clear Dialog Window............................................................................................... 30

2.6.9 Facts Window........................................................................................................... 30

2.6.10 Agenda Window..................................................................................................... 30

2.6.11 Instances Window................................................................................................... 30

2.6.12 Globals Window..................................................................................................... 31

2.6.13 Focus Window........................................................................................................ 31

2.6.14 Dialog Window....................................................................................................... 31

2.6.15 Edit Windows......................................................................................................... 31

2.7 The Help Menu.................................................................................................................. 31

2.7.1 About CLIPS............................................................................................................ 31

2.7.2 CLIPS Help.............................................................................................................. 32

2.7.3 Complete... (Ctrl+J).................................................................................................. 32

2.8 Creating the Windows 2000/XP Executables..................................................................... 33

2.8.1 Building the CLIPS Interface Executable Using Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2003 33

2.8.2 Building the CLIPS Console Executable Using Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2003. 34

2.8.3 Building the CLIPS Interface Executable Using Borland C++ 5.0........................... 34

2.8.4 Building the CLIPS Interface Executable Using Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.4....... 35

2.8.5 Building the CLIPS Console Executable Using Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.4........ 36

Section 3 - CLIPS Macintosh Interface..................................................................................... 37

3.1 The File Menu.................................................................................................................... 38

3.1.1 New (N)................................................................................................................ 39

3.1.2 Open... (O)............................................................................................................ 39

3.1.3 Load... (L).............................................................................................................. 39

3.1.4 Load Batch................................................................................................................ 39

3.1.5 Load Binary.............................................................................................................. 39

3.1.6 Turn Dribble On....................................................................................................... 39

3.1.7 Close (W).............................................................................................................. 40

3.1.8 Save (S)................................................................................................................. 40

3.1.9 Save As..................................................................................................................... 40

3.1.10 Save Binary............................................................................................................. 40

3.1.11 Revert...................................................................................................................... 41

3.1.12 Page Setup.............................................................................................................. 41

3.1.13 Print........................................................................................................................ 41

3.2 The Edit Menu................................................................................................................... 42

3.2.1 Undo (Z)................................................................................................................ 42

3.2.2 Cut (X).................................................................................................................. 42

3.2.3 Copy (C)................................................................................................................ 43

3.2.4 Paste (V)................................................................................................................ 43

3.2.5 Clear.......................................................................................................................... 43

3.2.6 Select All (A)......................................................................................................... 43

3.2.7 Complete... (J)....................................................................................................... 43

3.2.8 Balance (B)............................................................................................................ 44

3.2.9 Comment (;)........................................................................................................... 44

3.2.10 Uncomment (U)................................................................................................... 45

3.2.11 Set Font................................................................................................................... 45

3.2.12 Clear Window......................................................................................................... 45

3.2.13 Preferences.............................................................................................................. 46

3.3 The Buffer Menu............................................................................................................... 47

3.3.1 Find... (F).............................................................................................................. 47

3.3.2 Find Again (G)...................................................................................................... 48

3.3.3 Find Selection (H)................................................................................................. 48

3.3.4 Enter Find String (E)............................................................................................. 49

3.3.5 Replace (=)............................................................................................................ 49

3.3.6 Replace and Find Again (T)................................................................................... 49

3.3.7 Replace All................................................................................................................ 49

3.3.8 Load Selection (K)................................................................................................. 49

3.3.9 Batch Selection (M)............................................................................................... 49

3.3.10 Load Buffer............................................................................................................. 50

3.4 The Commands Menu........................................................................................................ 50

3.4.1 Watch........................................................................................................................ 50

3.4.2 Options..................................................................................................................... 51

3.4.3 Set Commands.......................................................................................................... 52

3.5 The Browse Menu............................................................................................................. 54

3.5.1 The Module Menu.................................................................................................... 54

3.5.2 Defrule Manager....................................................................................................... 55

3.5.3 Deffacts Manager...................................................................................................... 56

3.5.4 Deftemplate Manager................................................................................................ 57

3.5.5 Deffunction Manager................................................................................................ 58

3.5.6 Defglobal Manager................................................................................................... 59

3.5.7 Defgeneric Manager.................................................................................................. 60

3.5.8 Defclass Manager..................................................................................................... 61

3.5.9 Definstances Manager............................................................................................... 63

3.5.10 Agenda Manager..................................................................................................... 64

3.6 The Window Menu............................................................................................................ 66

3.6.1 Dialog Window......................................................................................................... 66

3.6.2 Facts Window........................................................................................................... 66

3.6.3 Agenda Window....................................................................................................... 66

3.6.4 Instances Window..................................................................................................... 67

3.6.5 Globals Window....................................................................................................... 67

3.6.6 Focus Window.......................................................................................................... 67

3.6.7 All Above................................................................................................................. 67

3.6.8 Titled and Untitled Edit Windows............................................................................. 67

3.7 Creating The Macintosh Executables................................................................................. 68

3.7.1 Building the CLIPS Interface Executable Using Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.6....... 68

3.7.2 Building the CLIPS Console Executable Using Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.6........ 69

3.7.3 Building the CLIPS Interface Executable Using Xcode 2.3...................................... 69

3.7.4 Building the CLIPS Console Executable Using Xcode 2.3....................................... 70

Section 4 - CLIPS X Window Interface.................................................................................... 71

4.1 The  Menu.................................................................................................................... 71

4.2 The File Menu.................................................................................................................... 72

4.2.1 Edit... (^V)................................................................................................................ 72

4.2.2 Complete... (^C)........................................................................................................ 72

4.2.3 Load... (^L)............................................................................................................... 73

4.2.4 Load Batch................................................................................................................ 73

4.2.5 Load Binary.............................................................................................................. 74

4.2.6 Dribble... (^N).......................................................................................................... 74

4.2.7 Save Binary............................................................................................................... 74

4.2.8 Quit (^Q).................................................................................................................. 74

4.3 The Execution Menu.......................................................................................................... 75

4.3.1 Reset (^E)................................................................................................................. 75

4.3.2 Run (^R)................................................................................................................... 75

4.3.3 Step (^T)................................................................................................................... 75

4.3.4 Watch........................................................................................................................ 75

4.3.5 Options..................................................................................................................... 77

4.3.6 Clear CLIPS (^K)..................................................................................................... 78

4.3.7 Clear Window (^N).................................................................................................. 78

4.4 The Browse Menu............................................................................................................. 78

4.4.1 Module Menu........................................................................................................... 79

4.4.2 Defrule Manager....................................................................................................... 80

4.4.3 Deffacts Manager...................................................................................................... 81

4.4.4 Deftemplate Manager................................................................................................ 82

4.4.5 Deffunction Manager................................................................................................ 83

4.4.6 Defglobal Manager................................................................................................... 84

4.4.7 Defgeneric Manager.................................................................................................. 84

4.4.8 Defclass Manager..................................................................................................... 86

4.4.9 Definstances Manager............................................................................................... 88

4.4.10 Agenda Manager..................................................................................................... 89

4.5 The Window Menu............................................................................................................ 91

4.5.1 Facts Window........................................................................................................... 91

4.5.2 Agenda Window....................................................................................................... 91

4.5.3 Instances Window..................................................................................................... 91

4.5.4 Globals Window....................................................................................................... 91

4.5.5 Focus Window.......................................................................................................... 92

4.5.6 All............................................................................................................................. 92

4.5.7 None......................................................................................................................... 92

4.5.8 Command Line CLIPS (^Z)...................................................................................... 92

4.5.9 Color Utility.............................................................................................................. 92

4.6 The Editor.......................................................................................................................... 94

4.6.1 File............................................................................................................................ 94

4.6.2 Edit............................................................................................................................ 95

4.6.3 Font........................................................................................................................... 97

4.6.4 Help.......................................................................................................................... 99

4.7 Building The CLIPS X Window Interface......................................................................... 99

Appendix A ‑ Update Release Notes........................................................................................ 101

A.1 Version 6.24................................................................................................................... 101

A.2 Version 6.23................................................................................................................... 101

A.3 Version 6.21................................................................................................................... 101

A.4 Version 6.20................................................................................................................... 102

A.5 Version 6.10................................................................................................................... 102

A.6 Version 6.05................................................................................................................... 102

 


License Information

 

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the “Software”), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so.                            

 

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, OR ANY SPECIAL INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

 

CLIPS is released as public domain software and as such you are under no obligation to pay for its use. However, if you derive commercial or monetary benefit from use of the software or just want to show support, please consider making a voluntary payment based on the worth of the software to you as compensation for the time and effort required to develop and maintain CLIPS. Payments can be made online at http://order.kagi.com/?JKT.

 


Preface

 

The History of CLIPS

 

The origins of the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) date back to 1984 at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. At this time, the Artificial Intelligence Section (now the Software Technology Branch) had developed over a dozen prototype expert systems applications using state‑of‑the‑art hardware and software. However, despite extensive demonstrations of the potential of expert systems, few of these applications were put into regular use. This failure to provide expert systems technology within NASA’s operational computing constraints could largely be traced to the use of LISP as the base language for nearly all expert system software tools at that time. In particular, three problems hindered the use of LISP based expert system tools within NASA: the low availability of LISP on a wide variety of conventional computers, the high cost of state‑of‑the‑art LISP tools and hardware, and the poor integra­tion of LISP with other languages (making embedded applications difficult).

 

The Artificial Intelligence Section felt that the use of a conventional language, such as C, would eliminate most of these problems, and initially looked to the expert system tool vendors to provide an expert system tool written using a conventional language. Although a number of tool vendors started converting their tools to run in C, the cost of each tool was still very high, most were restricted to a small variety of computers, and the projected availability times were discouraging. To meet all of its needs in a timely and cost effective manner, it became evident that the Artificial Intelligence Section would have to develop its own C based expert system tool.

 

The prototype version of CLIPS was developed in the spring of 1985 in a little over two months. Particular attention was given to making the tool compatible with expert systems under development at that time by the Artificial Intelligence Section. Thus, the syntax of CLIPS was made to very closely resemble the syntax of a subset of the ART expert system tool developed by Inference Corporation. Although originally modelled from ART, CLIPS was developed entirely without assistance from Inference or access to the ART source code.

 

The original intent for CLIPS was to gain useful insight and knowledge about the construction of expert system tools and to lay the groundwork for the construction of a replacement tool for the commercial tools currently being used. Version 1.0 demonstrated the feasibility of the project concept. After additional development, it became apparent that CLIPS would be a low cost expert system tool ideal for the purposes of training. Another year of development and internal use went into CLIPS improving its portability, performance, functionality, and supporting documentation. Version 3.0 of CLIPS was made available to groups outside of NASA in the summer of 1986.

 

Further enhancements transformed CLIPS from a training tool into a tool useful for the development and delivery of expert systems as well. Versions 4.0 and 4.1 of CLIPS, released respectively in the summer and fall of 1987, featured greatly improved performance, external language integration, and delivery capabilities. Version 4.2 of CLIPS, released in the summer of 1988, was a complete rewrite of CLIPS for code modularity. Also included with this release were an architecture manual providing a detailed description of the CLIPS software architecture and a utility program for aiding in the verification and validation of rule‑based programs. Version 4.3 of CLIPS, released in the summer of 1989, added still more functionality.

 

Originally, the primary representation methodology in CLIPS was a forward chaining rule lan­guage based on the Rete algorithm (hence the Production System part of the CLIPS acronym). Version 5.0 of CLIPS, released in the spring of 1991, introduced two new programming paradigms: procedural programming (as found in languages such as C and Ada) and object‑oriented programming (as found in languages such as the Common Lisp Object System and Smalltalk). The object‑oriented programming language provided within CLIPS is called the CLIPS Object‑Oriented Language (COOL). Version 5.1 of CLIPS, released in the fall of 1991, was primarily a software maintenance upgrade required to support the newly developed and/or enhanced X Window, MS‑DOS, and Macintosh interfaces. Version 6.0 of CLIPS, released in 1993, provided support for the development of modular programs and tight integration between the object-oriented and rule-based programming capabilities of CLIPS. Version 6.1 of CLIPS, released in 1998,  removed support for older non-ANSI C Compilers and added support for C++ compilers. Commands to profile the time spent in constructs and user-defined functions were also added.

 

Because of its portability, extensibility, capabilities, and low‑cost, CLIPS has received widespread acceptance throughout the government, industry, and academia. The development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments. CLIPS is being used by numerous users throughout the public and private community including: all NASA sites and branches of the mil­itary, numerous federal bureaus, gov­ernment contractors, uni­versities, and many private compa­nies.

 

CLIPS is now maintained as public domain software by the main program authors who no longer work for NASA. See appendix A of the Basic Programming Guide for information on obtaining CLIPS and support.

 

CLIPS Version 6.2

 

Version 6.2 of CLIPS contains two major enhancements. First, CLIPS now provides a mechanism which allows an embedded application to create multiple environments into which programs can be loaded. Second, an improved Windows 2000/XP CLIPS interface is now available and the Macintosh CLIPS interface has been enhanced to support MacOS X. For a detailed listing of differences between the 6.x releases of CLIPS, refer to appendix B of the Basic Programming Guide and appendix C of the Advanced Programming Guide.


CLIPS Documentation

 

Two documents are provided with CLIPS.

 

     The CLIPS Reference Manual which is split into the following parts:

 

     Volume I - The Basic Programming Guide, which provides the definitive description of CLIPS syntax and examples of usage.

 

     Volume II - The Advanced Programming Guide, which provides detailed discus­sions of the more sophisticated features in CLIPS and is intended for people with extensive programming experience who are using CLIPS for advanced ap­plications.

 

     Volume III - The Interfaces Guide, which provides information on machine‑specific interfaces.

 

     The CLIPS User’s Guide which provides an introduction to CLIPS rule‑based and object‑oriented programming and is intended for people with little or no expert system experience.

 

 


Acknowledgements

As with any large project, CLIPS is the result of the efforts of numerous people. The primary contributors have been: Robert Savely, who conceived the project and provided overall direction and support;  Chris Culbert, who managed the project and wrote the original CLIPS Reference Manual; Gary Riley, who designed and developed the rule‑based portion of CLIPS, co‑authored the CLIPS Reference Manual, and developed the Macintosh interface for CLIPS; Brian Donnell, who designed and developed the CLIPS Object Oriented Language (COOL) and co‑authored the CLIPS Reference Manual; Bebe Ly, who developed the X Window interface for CLIPS; Chris Ortiz, who developed the original Windows 95 interface for CLIPS; Dr. Joseph Giarratano of the University of Houston-Clear Lake, who wrote the CLIPS User’s Guide; and Frank Lopez, who designed and developed CLIPS version 1.0 and wrote the CLIPS 1.0 User's Guide.

 

Many other individuals contributed to the design, development, review, and general support of CLIPS, including: Jack Aldridge, Carla Armstrong, Paul Baffes, Ann Baker, Stephen Baudendistel, Les Berke, Tom Blinn, Marlon Boarnet, Dan Bochsler, Bob Brown, Barry Cameron, Tim Cleghorn, Major Paul Condit, Major Steve Cross, Andy Cunningham, Dan Danley, Mark Engelberg, Kirt Fields, Ken Freeman, Kevin Greiner, Ervin Grice, Sharon Hecht, Patti Herrick, Mark Hoffman, Grace Hua, Gordon Johnson, Phillip Johnston, Sam Juliano, Ed Lineberry, Bowen Loftin, Linda Martin, Daniel McCoy, Terry McGregor, Becky McGuire, Scott Meadows, C. J. Melebeck, Paul Mitchell, Steve Mueller, Bill Paseman, Cynthia Rathjen, Eric Raymond, Reza Razavipour, Marsha Renals, Monica Rua, Tim Saito, Michael Sullivan, Gregg Swietek, Eric Taylor, James Villarreal, Lui Wang, Bob Way, Jim Wescott, Charlie Wheeler, and Wes White.


Section 1 ‑ Introduction

This manual is the Interfaces Guide for CLIPS. It is intended for users interested in using the machine specific interfaces for CLIPS. Section 2 of this manual describes the IBM PC compatible Windows interface for CLIPS, Section 3 describes the Macintosh interface for CLIPS, and Section 4 describes the X Window interface for CLIPS.


Section 2 - CLIPS Windows Interface

This section provides a brief summary of each menu command found in the CLIPS 6.2 Windows interface. The menus are listed in the left to right order in which they appear in the menu bar. The commands within each menu are also listed in the order in which they appear in the menu.

 

The rest of the CLIPS 6.2 Windows interface is straightforward, following Windows interface standards. Commands can be entered directly in the dialog window in a fashion similar to the standard CLIPS command line interface. The integrated editor is implemented in a fashion similar to that of other Windows editors.

 

If rules are not being executed, then execution of the current command or CLIPS program can be halted by holding down the control key while pressing the period key. If rules are being executed, then rule execution can be interrupted on a rule firing boundary by holding the control key while pressing the period key. Holding down the shift key, the control key, and the period key will halt rule execution after the current RHS action. The Halt menu item can also be selected from the Execution menu during execution. Selecting this menu item is equivalent to holding down the control key while pressing the period key. If the shift key is held down before clicking in the menu bar, the Halt menu item is changed to the Halt Now! menu item. Selecting this menu item is equivalent to holding down the shift key and the control key while pressing the period key.

 

Some menu commands are available while CLIPS is executing a user program. Among these commands are the Options... menu item, the Watch... menu item, the Turn Dribble On.../Turn Dribble Off menu item, and all menu items in Window menu. The command summary for each menu item indicates whether it is available while CLIPS is executing. In addition, windows may be moved and re-sized while CLIPS is executing.

2.1 The File Menu

2.1.1 New (Ctrl+N)

This command opens a new buffer for editing with the window name Untitled.

2.1.2 Open... (Ctrl+O)

This command displays the standard Windows file selection dialog box, allowing the user to select a text file to be opened as a buffer for editing.

2.1.3 Load... (Ctrl+L)

This command displays the standard Windows file selection dialog box, allowing the user to select a text file to be loaded into the knowledge base. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (load <file-name>). When this command is chosen and a file is se­lected, the appropriate CLIPS load command will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

 

Note: when using the CLIPS command  (load <file-name>) specify the path using the forward slash character '/' or a double backslash '\\' instead of the standard DOS delimiter '\'. 

 

For example,

 

(load "C: / CLIPSWIN / EXAMPLES / TEST.CLP")

 

or

 

(load "C: \\ CLIPSWIN \\ EXAMPLES \\ TEST.CLP")

2.1.4 Load Batch...

This command displays the standard Windows file selection dialog box, allowing the user to select a text file to be executed as a batch file. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (batch <file-name>). When this command is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS batch command will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing. 

2.1.5 Load Binary...

This command displays the standard Windows file selection dialog box, allowing the user to select a file to be loaded as a binary image. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (bload <file-name>). When this command is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS bload command will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing. 

2.1.6 Turn Dribble On...

This command displays the standard Windows file selection dialog box, allowing the user to select a text file in which subsequent display window output will be stored. This com­mand is equivalent to the CLIPS command (dribble‑on <file-name>). When this com­mand is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS dribble‑on command will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. While the dribble file is active, this menu item will be modified to read Turn Dribble Off. Selecting the menu item at this time will close the dribble text file. The Turn Dribble Off command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (dribble‑off). This command is available when CLIPS is executing (however the commands will not be echoed to the dialog window).

2.1.7 Close

This command closes the currently active edit or status window.

2.1.8 Save (Ctrl+S)

This command saves the file in the active edit window or the contents of the dialog or status window. If the file is Untitled, the Dialog window, or a status window , a dialog box will prompt for a file name under which to save the file. The file type option in the standard file dialog box determines whether a file is saved as a batch file or a text file. CLIPS batch file documents are executed as a series of commands when launched, whereas CLIPS text file documents are placed in an editing buffer when launched. Both types of documents can be edited as text files in the editor.

2.1.9 Save As...

This command allows the active edit window to be saved under a new name. A dialog box will appear to prompt for the new file name. The name of the editing window will be changed to the new file name.

2.1.10 Save Binary...

This command allows the constructs currently stored in CLIPS to be saved as a binary image. A dialog box will appear to prompt for the new file name in which to store the binary image. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (bsave <file‑name>). When this command is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS bsave command will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing. 

2.1.11 Revert

This command restores the active edit window to the last-saved version of the file in the buffer. Any changes made since the file was last saved will be discarded.

2.1.12 Page Setup...

This command allows the user to specify information about the size of paper used by the printer.

2.1.13 Print... (Ctrl+P)

This command allows the user to print the active edit window.

2.1.14 Exit

This command exits CLIPS. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.2 The Edit Menu

2.2.1 Undo (Ctrl+Z)

This command allows you to undo your last editing operation. Typing, cut, copy, paste, and delete operations can all be undone.

2.2.2 Cut (Ctrl+X)

This command removes selected text in the edit window and places it in the Clipboard.

2.2.3 Copy (Ctrl+C)

This command copies selected text in the edit window and places it in the Clipboard.

2.2.4 Paste (Ctrl+V)

This command copies the contents of the Clipboard to the selection point in the edit window or the Dialog window. If there is selected text in the edit window, it is replaced by the contents of the Clipboard.

2.2.5 Delete

This command removes selected text in the edit window. The selected text is not placed in the Clipboard.

2.2.6 Select All

This command selects all of the text in the active edit window.

2.2.7 Balance (Ctrl+B)

This command operates on the current selection in the edit window by attempting to find the smallest selection containing the current selection which has balanced parentheses. Repeat­edly using this command will select larger and larger selections of text until a balanced se­lection cannot be found. The balance command is a purely textual operation and can be confused by parentheses found in strings.

2.2.8 Comment (Ctrl+;)

This command operates on the current selection in the active edit window by adding a semicolon to the beginning of each line contained in the selection.

2.2.9 Uncomment (Ctrl+U)

This command operates on the current selection in the active edit window by removing a semicolon (if one exists) from the beginning of each line contained in the selection.

2.2.10 Set Font...

This command allows the font used in the currently active editing buffer to be changed. When you use this command, the following dialog will appear:

Select the desired font and font attributes in the dialog. The letters in the Sample area will be displayed using the selected font. Click the OK button to change the font used in the currently active editing buffer. Click the Cancel button to retain the current font setting.

2.3 The Buffer Menu

2.3.1 Find (Ctrl+F)

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to set parameters for text search operations. The dialog box that appears allows a search string to be specified.

The Match Case option makes the string search operation case-insensitive for alphabetic characters; that is, the string “Upper” will not match the string “uPPER”. The default for this setting is off.

 

Once search options have been set, one of three search dialog buttons can be pressed. The Find Next button will search for teach occurrence of the string in the edit window starting at the end of the current selection and preceding to the end of the buffer. The Cancel button aborts the find command. The search options are restored to the values they had before the dialog box was entered.

2.3.2 Replace (Ctrl+H)

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to set parameters for text search and replacement operations.  The dialog box that appears allows a search and re­placement string to be specified.

The Match Case option makes the string search operation case-insensitive for alphabetic characters; that is, the string “Upper” will not match the string “uPPER”. The default for this setting is off.

 

Once search options have been set, one of three search dialog buttons can be pressed. The Find Next button will search for each occurrence of the “Find What” string in the edit window starting at the end of the current selection and preceding to the end of the buffer. The Replace button will replace one instance of the “Find What” string with the “Replace With” string. The Replace All button will replace every instance of the “Find What” string with the “Replace With” string without user verification. The Cancel button aborts the replace command. The search and replace strings and options are restored to the values they had before the dialog box was entered.

2.3.3 Load Selection (Ctrl+K)

This command loads the current selection from the edit window into the CLIPS knowledge base. Standard error detection and recovery routines used to load constructs from a file are also used when loading a selection (i.e., if a construct has an error in it, the rest of the construct will be skipped over until another construct to be loaded is found). This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.3.4 Batch Selection (Ctrl+M)

This command treats the current selection in the edit window as if it were a batch file and executes it as a series of commands. Standard error detection and recovery routines used to load construct from a file are not used when batching a selection (i.e., if a construct has an error in it, a number of ancillary errors may be generated by subsequent parts of the same construct following the error). This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.3.5 Load Buffer

This command loads the contents of the active edit window into the CLIPS knowledge base. It is equivalent to selecting the entire buffer and executing a Load Selection command. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

 

2.4 The Execution Menu

2.4.1 Reset (Ctrl+E)

This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (reset). When this command is chosen, the CLIPS command (reset) will be echoed to the dialog window and exe­cuted. If Warnings are enabled and activation's are currently on the agenda, a dialog box will appear issuing a warning and providing an opportunity to cancel this command. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.4.2 Run (Ctrl+R)

This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (run). When this command is cho­sen, the CLIPS command (run) will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. During execution, this menu command is changed to Halt and can be selected to halt execution (as if a command period had been entered). Holding the shift key down while selecting this menu item is equivalent to entering command-shift-period. For an explanation of the different methods of halting execution refer to the introduction at the beginning of this section.

2.4.3 Step (Ctrl+T)

This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (run <limit>) where <limit> is the value for the Step Rule Firing Increment. (it is set using the Options... command under the Edit menu). When this command is chosen, the CLIPS command (run <limit>) will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. If the default value for the Step Rule Firing Increment is used, this command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (run 1). This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.4.4 Watch... (Ctrl+W)

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to set various watch items as enabled or disabled.

Watch items can be enabled or disabled by clicking the appropriate check box. Enabled watch items have a check in their check box. Disabled watch items have no check mark in their check box. Pressing the All button checks all of the watch item check boxes. Pressing the None button unchecks all of the watch item check boxes. Clicking the OK button exits the dialog and changes the current watch settings to those shown in the dialog. Clicking the Cancel button exits the dialog, but retains the original settings of the watch items before the dialog was entered.

 

This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.4.5 Options...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to set various CLIPS execution options.

The Salience Evaluation pop-up menu allows the current salience evaluation behavior to be changed (to either when-defined, when-activated, or every-cycle). The Strategy pop-up menu allows the current conflict resolution strategy to be changed (to either depth, breadth, lex, mea, complexity, simplicity, or random). The Static Constraint Checking, Dynamic Constraint Checking, Reset Global Variables, Sequence Expansion Operator Recognition, Incremental Reset, Auto‑Float Dividend, and Fact Duplication check boxes are used to enable and disable the named CLIPS option. Enabled options have a check in their check box while disabled items have none. The Incremental Reset option cannot be changed if any defrules are currently defined. Clicking the OK button exits the dialog and changes the CLIPS execution options settings to those shown in the dialog. Clicking the Cancel button exits the dialog, but retains the original settings of the CLIPS execution options before the dialog was entered.

 

This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.4.6 Preferences...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to set the parameters for several options in the CLIPS Windows interface.

Enable Warnings option determines whether certain warnings are issued. The default for this option is on. When Warnings are enabled, certain com­mands chosen from the menu bar will display a dialog box giving the user the option to abort the command. For example, executing a clear command with Warnings enabled will display the following dialog box:

Warnings will only be issued for commands chosen from the menu bar. For example, typing a clear command directly into the dialog window and executing it will not display a warning dialog box regardless of whether Warnings are enabled.

 

The Command Completion Dialog option determines whether a dialog is displayed to determine which completion to use if more than one completion is available. The default for this option is on. That is, a dialog will be displayed whenever there is more than one possible completion. If this option is off, then a beep is sounded when no possible completion's exist. From the CLIPS command prompt, the command set‑completion-dialog can be used to enable and disable the use of the completion dialog when there is more than one choice (pass the symbol TRUE to enable the completion dialog and the symbol FALSE to disable it).

 

The Step Rule Firing Increment option determines how many rules will be exe­cuted when the Step command (see Execution menu) is issued. Any integer between 1 and 999 inclusive can be entered for this option. The default value for this option is 1.

 

 This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.4.7 Clear CLIPS

This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (clear). When this command is chosen, the CLIPS command (clear) will be echoed to the dialog window and exe­cuted. If Warnings are enabled, a dialog box will appear issuing a warning and providing an opportunity to cancel this command. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.5 The Browse Menu

2.5.1 The Module Menu

This menu displays a list of the defmodules currently defined in the CLIPS environment. A check mark is displayed by the current module. Selecting a module from the menu list changes the current module to the selected item.

2.5.2 Defrule Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defrules in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an op­eration to be performed on a defrule selected from the list of defrules currently in the knowl­edge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equivalent to issuing an undefrule command. The Refresh button will refresh the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equivalent to a refresh command. The Matches com­mand will list the matches for the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equiv­alent to a matches command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefrule command. Both the Matches and Pprint buttons echo the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Breakpoint check box is used to enable or disable a breakpoint on the currently selected defrule. Rules with a breakpoint set have a check in their check box while rules without a breakpoint have none. The Watch Activations check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a rule is activated or deactivated. If the check box for a rule is checked, then activation/deactivation messages for the rule will be printed. The Watch Firings check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a rule is executed. If the check box for a rule is checked, then execution messages for the rule will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defrule Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.5.3 Deffacts Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the deffacts in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a deffacts selected from the list of deffacts currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected deffacts. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undeffacts command The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected deffacts. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdeffacts command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Deffacts Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.5.4 Deftemplate Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the deftemplates in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a deftemplate selected from the list of deftem­plates currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected deftemplate. Pressing this but­ton is equivalent to an undeftemplate command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected deftemplate. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdeftemplate command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed whenever a fact is asserted or retracted. If the check box for a deftemplate is checked, then assert/retract messages for facts associated with the deftemplate will be printed.

 

 Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Deftemplate Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.5.5 Deffunction Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the deffunctions in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a deffunction selected from the list of deffunctions currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected deffunction. Pressing this but­ton is equivalent to an undeffunction command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected deffunction. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdeffunction command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a deffunction begins and ends execution. If the check box for a deffunction is checked, then execution messages for the deffunction will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Deffunction Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.5.6 Defglobals Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defglobals in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an op­eration to be performed on a defglobal selected from the list of defglobals currently in the knowl­edge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defglobal. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefglobal command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defglobal. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefglobal command.  The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defglobals Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.5.7 Defgeneric Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defgenerics in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an op­eration to be performed on a defgeneric selected from the list of defgenerics currently in the knowl­edge base. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defgeneric Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defgeneric. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefgeneric command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defgeneric. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefgeneric command.  The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a generic function begins and ends execution. If the check box for a deffunction is checked, then execution messages for the generic function will be printed.

 

The Methods... button displays a dialog box allowing the defmethods for the currently selected defgeneric to be browsed. The dialog box that appears in response to this button allows an op­eration to be performed on a defmethod selected from the list of defmethods currently in the knowl­edge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defmethod. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefmethod command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defmethod. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefmethod command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a specific method of a generic function begins and ends execution. If the check box for a defmethod is checked, then execution messages for the method will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to return control to the Defgeneric Manager dialog box.

2.5.8 Defclass Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defclasses in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an op­eration to be performed on a defclass selected from the list of defclasses currently in the knowl­edge base. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defclass Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefclass command. The Describe button will describe the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equivalent to a describe-class command. The Browse com­mand displays the class hierarchy for the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equiv­alent to a browse-class command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefclass command. The Describe, Browse, and Pprint buttons echo the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window. 

 

The Watch Instances check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when an instance is created or deleted. If the check box for a defclass is checked, then messages will be printed whenever an instance of that class is created or deleted. The Watch Slots check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when an instance’s slot values are changed. If the check box for a defclass is checked, then messages will be printed whenever an instance of that class has a slot value changed.

 

The Message Handlers... button displays a dialog box allowing the message handlers for the currently selected class to be browsed. The dialog box that appears in response to this button allows an op­eration to be performed on a defmessage‑handler selected from the list of defmessage‑handlers currently in the knowl­edge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defmessage-handler. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefmessage-handler command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defmessage-handler. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefmessage-handler command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a message-handler begins and ends execution. If the check box for a defmessage-handler is checked, then execution messages for the message-handler will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to return control to the Defclass Manager dialog box.

2.5.9 Definstances Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the definstances in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a definstances selected from the list of definstances currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected definstances. Pressing this but­ton is equivalent to an undefinstances command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected definstances. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefinstances command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Definstances Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.5.10 Agenda Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the activation's on the agenda to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows any acti­vation on the agenda to be removed or fired.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected activation from the agenda. The Fire button will place the currently selected activation at the top of the agenda (regardless of its salience). The dialog is then exited and the CLIPS command (run 1) will then be echoed to the Dialog Window, causing the activation to fire. Any number of remove operations (except the Fire button) can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Agenda Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

2.6 The Window Menu

2.6.1 Cascade

Arranges windows as overlapped tiles.

2.6.2 Tile Horizontally

Arranges windows as non-overlapping tiles from top to bottom.

2.6.3 Tile Vertically

Arranges windows as non-overlapping tiles from left to right.

2.6.4 Close All

Closes all status and edit windows.

2.6.5 Show Status Windows

This command displays the Facts Window, Agenda Window, Instances Window, Globals Window, and Focus Window (creating them if they do not already exist). This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.6.6 Hide Status Windows

This command conceals the Facts Window, Agenda Window, Instances Window, Globals Window, and Focus Window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.6.7 Tile Dialog & Status Windows

Arranges the dialog and status windows as non-overlapping tiles.

2.6.8 Clear Dialog Window

This command clears all of the text in the Dialog Window. From the CLIPS command prompt, the command clear-window (which takes no arguments) will also clear all of the text in the Dialog Window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.6.9 Facts Window

This command displays the Facts Window if it is not already visible, otherwise it brings the window to the front. The Facts Window displays the list and number of facts in the fact-list. A check mark is placed by the window name if it is the front-most window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.6.10 Agenda Window

This command displays the Agenda Window if it is not already visible, otherwise it brings the window to the front. The Agenda Window displays the list of activation's currently on the agenda. A check mark is placed by the window name if it is the front-most window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.6.11 Instances Window

This command displays the Instances Window if it is not already visible, otherwise it brings the window to the front. The Instances Window displays the list of existing instances and their slot values. A check mark is placed by the window name if it is the front-most window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.6.12 Globals Window

This command displays the Globals Window if it is not already visible, otherwise it brings the window to the front. The Globals Window displays the list of global variables and their current values. A check mark is placed by the window name if it is the front-most window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.6.13 Focus Window

This command displays the Focus Window if it is not already visible, otherwise it brings the window to the front. The Focus Window displays the current focus stack. A check mark is placed by the window name if it is the front-most window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.6.14 Dialog Window

This command brings the Display Window to the front. A check mark is placed by the window name if it is the front-most window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.6.15 Edit Windows

The list of open editing windows is displayed after the list of status and dialog windows. Selecting an editing window brings the window to the front. A check mark is placed by the editing window name if it is the front-most window.

2.7 The Help Menu

2.7.1 About CLIPS

This command displays version information about CLIPS. Click the OK button to continue. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

2.7.2 CLIPS Help

This command displays the CLIPS hypertext help information. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (winhelp <topic-name>) or (winhelp). This command is available when CLIPS is executing. For more information see the Microsoft Windows User's Guide on using help.

2.7.3 Complete... (Ctrl+J)

This command “completes” the symbol currently being entered in the display window. In the display window, the symbol to be completed is always the last symbol in the display window (the current selection has no effect). If no possible completion's exist, a beep is sounded. If only one possible completion exists (e.g. “deftemplat” for “deftemplate”), then the symbol is automatically completed. If more than one completion exists, a dialog is displayed showing all possible completion's (or optionally a beep is sounded—See section 2.3.6).

 

The following dialog shows the possible completion's for the symbol “get-”:

Click the OK button to complete the symbol with the current selection. Click the Cancel button to terminate the dialog without any command completion. Note that symbols defined by the user (as part of a construct or a CLIPS data structure such as a fact or instance) will also be listed for command completion. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

 

Click the Help button to obtain hypertext information about the current selection. Note that some of the selections do not have an associated help entry, in this event, the help system will return a topic not found error.  For more information about help see Section 2.6.2.

2.8 Creating the Windows 2000/XP Executables

2.8.1 Building the CLIPS Interface Executable Using Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2003

The following steps describe how to create the Windows 2000/XP machine specific version of CLIPS using Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2003:

 

1)   The following source files are needed to build the interface in addition to the source files for the standard CLIPS executable:

 

Balance.h

Dialog1.h

Dialog2.h

Display.h

Edit.h

EditUtil.h

Extensions.h

FindWnd.h

Frame.h

Initialization.h

MainFrameToolbar.h

MDI.h

MDICLIPS.h

Menu.h

Menucmds.h

Print.h

Registry.h

Resource.h

Search.h

Status.h

StdSDK.h

Text.h

clipsdde.h

 

 

 

 

 

Balance.c

Dialog1.c

Dialog2.c

Display.c

Edit.c

EditUtil.c

FindWnd.c

Frame.c

Initialization.c

MainFrameToolbar.c

MDI.c

Menu.c

Menucmds.c

Print.c

Registry.c

Search.c

Status.c

Text.c

WinMain.c

clipsdde.c

 

 

 

 

CLIPSedit.ico

clipswin.ico

CLIPSwinc.ico

MDICLIPS.rc

query.cur

ToolBar.bmp

wait.cur

1.cur

2.cur

3.cur

4.cur

5.cur

6.cur

7.cur

8.cur

9.cur

 

2)   Create a directory to contain the project files. Place the CLIPSwin.sln, CLIPSWin.vcproj, and CLIPS.vcproj files in this directory.

 

3)   Create a sub-directory named Source in the project directory. Create a sub‑directory named CLIPS in the Source directory. Copy all of the CLIPS source code into the CLIPS directory.

 

4)   Create a sub-directory named Interface in the SOURCE directory. Copy the Windows interface source code (the files listed in step 1) into the INTRFACE directory.

 

5)   Launch the Microsoft Visual C++ application by double clicking on the CLIPSwin.sln file.

 

6)   Edit the setup.h file. Set the compiler directive flag IBM_MSC to 1 and the compiler directive flag WINDOW_INTERFACE to 1.

 

7)   Select the Configuration Manager... menu item in the Build Menu. Select the Release menu item from the Active Solution Configuration dropdown menu. In the Build column, check the checkbox for CLIPSWin and uncheck the checkbox for CLIPS.

     

8)   Under the Build Menu choose Rebuild Solution. The CLIPSWin.exe executable will be placed in the project directory.

2.8.2 Building the CLIPS Console Executable Using Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2003

The following steps describe how to create the Windows 2000/XP console version of CLIPS using Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2003:

 

1)    Follow steps 1 through 6 in section 2.8.1.

 

2)   Select the Configuration Manager... menu item in the Build Menu. Select the Release menu item from the Active Solution Configuration dropdown menu. In the Build column, check the checkbox for CLIPS and uncheck the checkbox for CLIPSWin.

     

3)   Under the Build Menu choose Rebuild Solution. The CLIPS.exe executable will be placed in the project directory.

2.8.3 Building the CLIPS Interface Executable Using Borland C++ 5.0

The following steps describe how to create the Windows 2000/XP machine specific version of CLIPS using Borland C++ 5.0:

 

1)    The source files used in step 1 in section 2.8.1 are also needed for building the Borland C++ version.

 

2)   Create a directory to contain the project files. Place the CLIPSWin.ide file in the project directory.

 

3)   Create a sub-directory named Source in the project directory. Create a sub‑directory named CLIPS in the Source directory. Copy all of the CLIPS source code into the CLIPS directory.

 

4)   Create a sub-directory named Interface in the Source directory. Copy the Windows interface source code (the files listed in step 1) into the Interface directory.

 

5)   Create a sub-directory named Objects in the Source directory.

 

6)   Launch the Borland C++ application. Open the CLIPSwin.ide project.

 

7)   Edit the setup.h file. Set the compiler directive flag IBM_TBC to 1 and the compiler directive flag WINDOW_INTERFACE to 1.

 

8)   Select the Project... menu item in the Options Menu and then select Directories. Replace the C:\BC5\INCLUDE and C:\BC5\LIB directory paths with the appropriate paths for your installation of Borland C++.

     

9)   Under the Project Menu choose Build all. The CLIPSWin.exe executable will be placed in the project directory.

2.8.4 Building the CLIPS Interface Executable Using Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.4

The following steps describe how to create the Windows 2000/XP machine specific version of CLIPS using Metrowerks CodeWarrior Professional 9.4:

 

1)   The source files used in step 1 in section 2.8.1 are also needed for building the CodeWarrior version.

 

2)   Create a directory to contain the project files. Place the CLIPSWin.mcp file in the project directory.

 

3)   Create a sub-directory named Source in the project directory. Create a sub‑directory named CLIPS in the Source directory. Copy all of the CLIPS source code into the CLIPS directory.

 

4)   Create a sub-directory named Interface in the Source directory. Copy the Windows interface source code (the files listed in step 1) into the Interface directory.

 

5)   Launch the CodeWarrior application. Open the CLIPSwin.mcp project.

 

6)   Edit the setup.h file. Set the compiler directive flag IBM_MCW to 1 and the compiler directive flag WINDOW_INTERFACE to 1.

 

7)   Under the Project menu, select Set Current Target and choose CLIPSWin.

 

8)   Under the Project Menu choose Make. The CLIPSWin.exe executable will be placed in the project directory.

2.8.5 Building the CLIPS Console Executable Using Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.4

The following steps describe how to create the Windows 2000/XP console version of CLIPS using CodeWarrior Professional Release 9.4:

 

1)   Follow steps 1 through 6 in section 2.8.4.

 

2)   Under the Project menu, select Set Current Target and choose CLIPS.

 

3)   Under the Project Menu choose Make. The CLIP.exe executable will be placed in the project directory.


Section 3 - CLIPS Macintosh Interface

This section provides a brief summary of each menu command found in the CLIPS 6.2 Macintosh interface. The menus are listed in the left to right order in which they appear in the menu bar. The commands within each menu are also listed in the order in which they appear in the menu.

 

The rest of the CLIPS 6.2 Macintosh interface is straightforward, following Macintosh interface standards. Commands can be entered directly in the dialog window in a fashion similar to the standard CLIPS command line interface. The integrated editor is implemented in a fashion similar to that of other Macintosh editors.

 

If rules are not being executed, then execution of the current command or CLIPS program can be halted by holding down the  key while pressing the period key. If rules are being executed, then rule execution can be interrupted on a rule firing boundary by holding down the  key while pressing the period key. Holding down the shift key, the  key, and the period key will halt rule execution after the current RHS action.

 

Some menu commands are available while CLIPS is executing a user program. Among these commands are the Options... menu item, the Watch... menu item, the Turn Dribble On.../Turn Dribble Off menu item, and all menu items in Window menu. The command summary for each menu item indicates whether it is available while CLIPS is executing. In addition, windows may be moved and resized while CLIPS is executing.

 

The bottom left-hand corner of the dialog window contains two drag and drop areas as show below. Dropping text into the Compile area loads the text into the CLIPS knowledge base. This is essentially equivalent to selecting text in an edit window and choosing the Load Selection menu item. Dropping text into the Batch area treats the text as if it were a batch file and executes it as a series of commands. This is essentially equivalent to selecting text in an edit window and choosing the Batch Selection menu item.

The bottom left-hand corner of an edit window contains a pop-up menu control as show below.

Clicking in the pop-up menu control displays a menu containing the list of constructs found in the edit window. Selecting one of the constructs in the menu will position the construct in the edit window so that it is visible.

3.1 The File Menu

3.1.1 New (N)

This command opens a new buffer for editing with the window name untitled. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.1.2 Open... (O)

This command displays the standard file selection dialog box, allowing the user to select a text file to be opened as a buffer for editing. More than one file can be opened at the same time, however, the same file cannot be opened more than once. As files are opened, they are automatically stacked. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.1.3 Load... (L)

This command displays the standard file selection dialog box, allowing the user to select a text file to be loaded into the knowledge base. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (load <file-name>). When this command is chosen and a file is se­lected, the appropriate CLIPS load command will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.1.4 Load Batch...

This command displays the standard file selection dialog box, allowing the user to select a text file to be executed as a batch file. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (batch <file-name>). When this command is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS batch command will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.1.5 Load Binary...

This command displays the standard file selection dialog box, allowing the user to select a file to be loaded as a binary image. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (bload <file-name>). When this command is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS bload command will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.1.6 Turn Dribble On...

This command displays the standard file selection dialog box, allowing the user to select a text file in which subsequent display window output will be stored. This com­mand is equivalent to the CLIPS command (dribble‑on <file-name>). When this com­mand is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS dribble‑on command will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. While the dribble file is active, this menu item will be modified to read Turn Dribble Off. Selecting the menu item at this time will close the dribble text file. The Turn Dribble Off command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (dribble‑off). This command is available when CLIPS is executing (however the commands will not be echoed to the dialog window).

3.1.7 Close (W)

This command closes the active window if it has a go-away box in its upper left corner. If the active window is an editing buffer that has been modified since it was last saved, a dialog box will confirm whether the changes should be saved or discarded or whether the close command should be canceled. This command is available when CLIPS is executing. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.1.8 Save (S)

This command saves the file in the active edit window. If the file is untitled, a dialog box will prompt for a file name under which to save the file. The Batch File option in the standard file dialog box determines whether a file is saved as a batch file or a text file. CLIPS batch file documents are executed as a series of commands when launched, whereas CLIPS text file documents are placed in an editing buffer when launched. Both types of documents can be edited as text files in a CLIPS editing buffer. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.1.9 Save As...

This command allows the active edit window to be saved under a new name. A dialog box will appear to prompt for the new file name. The name of the editing window will be changed to the new file name. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.1.10 Save Binary...

This command allows the constructs currently stored in CLIPS to be saved as a binary image. A dialog box will appear to prompt for the new file name in which to store the binary image. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (bsave <file‑name>). When this command is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS bsave command will be echoed to the dialog window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.1.11 Revert

This command restores the active edit window to the last-saved version of the file in the buffer. Any changes made since the file was last saved will be discarded. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.1.12 Page Setup...

This command allows the user to specify information about the size of paper used by the printer. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.1.13 Print...

This command allows the user to print the active edit window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.2 The Edit Menu

3.2.1 Undo (Z)

This command allows you to undo your last editing operation. Typing, cut, copy, paste, and clear operations can all be undone. The Undo menu item will change in the Edit menu to reflect the last operation performed. For example, if a Paste command was just performed, the Undo menu item will read Undo Paste. If the Paste command is undone, the menu item will read Redo Paste. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.2.2 Cut (X)

This command removes selected text in the active edit window and places it in the Clipboard. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.2.3 Copy (C)

This command copies selected text in the active edit window or the display window and places it in the Clipboard. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.2.4 Paste (V)

This command copies the contents of the Clipboard to the selection point in the active edit window or the display window. If selected text is in the active edit window, it is replaced by the contents of the Clipboard. Pasted text to the display window is always placed at the end of the display window regardless of whether there is selected text. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.2.5 Clear

This command removes selected text in the active edit window. The selected text is not placed in the Clipboard. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.2.6 Select All (A)

This command selects all of the text in the active edit or display window.

3.2.7 Complete... (J)

This command “completes” the symbol currently being entered in the display window or the active edit window. In the display window, the symbol to be completed is always the last symbol in the display window (the current selection has no effect). In an edit window, the symbol being completed is the current selection, or if no selection exists, the symbol to the left of the current insertion point. If no possible completions exist, a beep is sounded. If only one possible completion exists (e.g. “deftemplat” for “deftemplate”), then the symbol is automatically completed. If more than one completion exists, a dialog is displayed showing all possible completions (or optionally a beep is sounded—See section 3.3.10). The following dialog shows the possible completions for the symbol “set-s”:

Click the OK button to complete the symbol with the current selection. Click the Cancel button to terminate the dialog without any command completion. Note that symbols defined by the user (as part of a construct or a CLIPS data structure such as a fact or instance) will also be listed for command completion. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.2.8 Balance (B)

This command operates on the current selection in the active edit window by attempting to find the smallest selection containing the current selection which has balanced parentheses. Repeat­edly using this command will select larger and larger selections of text until a balanced se­lection cannot be found. The balance command is a purely textual operation and can be confused by parentheses found in strings. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.2.9 Comment (;)

This command operates on the current selection in the active edit window by adding a semicolon to the beginning of each line contained in the selection.

3.2.10 Uncomment (U)

This command operates on the current selection in the active edit window by removing a semicolon (if one exists) from the beginning of each line contained in the selection.

3.2.11 Set Font...

This command allows the font used in the currently active editing buffer to be changed. When you use this command, the following dialog will appear:

Select a font and font size from the popup menus on the left of the dialog. The sentence at the bottom of the dialog will be displayed using the selected font. Click the OK button to change the font used in the currently active editing buffer. Click the Cancel button to retain the current font setting. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.2.12 Clear Window

This command clears all of the text in the dialog window. From the CLIPS command prompt, the command clear-window (which takes no arguments) will also clear all of the text in the dialog window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.2.13 Preferences...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to set the parameters for several options in the CLIPS Macintosh interface.

The Command Completion Dialog option determines whether a dialog is displayed to determine which completion to use if more than one completion is available. The default for this option is on. That is, a dialog will be displayed whenever there is more than one possible completion. If this option is off, then a beep is sounded when no possible completions exist. From the CLIPS command prompt, the command set‑completion-dialog can be used to enable and disable the use of the completion dialog when there is more than one choice (pass the symbol TRUE to enable the completion dialog and the symbol FALSE to disable it).

 

The Remember Edit Window State option determines whether the window position, font, and current selection of an edit window are saved in addition to text changes when an edit window is saved. The Remember Environment Window State option determines whether the window position of the Display Window, Facts Window, Agenda Window, Instances Window,  Globals Window, or Focus Window is saved when the window is closed.

 

The Honor Edit Window State option determines whether the saved window position, font, and current selection of an edit window are used when a file is opened. The Honor Environment Window State option determines whether the saved window position of the Display Window, Facts Window, Agenda Window, Instances Window,  Globals Window, or Focus Window is used when the window is opened.

 

This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.3 The Buffer Menu

3.3.1 Find... (F)

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to set parameters for text search and replacement operations. The dialog box that appears allows a search and re­placement string to be specified.

Two other options can be set in the search dialog box. The Match Words option will only allow a string search to match whole words; that is, the string “at” would not be bound in the string “match”. The default for this setting is off. The Ignore Case option makes the string search operation case-insensitive for alphabetic characters; that is, the string “Upper” will match the string “uPPER”. The default for this setting is on.

 

Once search options have been set, one of three search dialog buttons can be pressed. The Find button will search for the first occurrence of the Search For string in the active edit window starting at the end of the current selection and preceding to the end of the buffer. The Don’t Find button saves the search and replace strings and options but does not initiate a search. The Cancel button aborts the find command. The search and replace strings and options are restored to the values they had before the dialog box was entered.

 

This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.3.2 Find Again (G)

This command searches for the next occurrence of the Search For string starting at the end of the current selection and preceding to the end of the buffer. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.3.3 Find Selection (H)

This command sets the Search For string to the current selection in the edit window and then searches for that string. It is equivalent to a Enter Find String command followed by a Find Again command. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.3.4 Enter Find String (E)

This command sets the Search For string to the current selection in the edit window. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.3.5 Replace (=)

This command will replace the current selection in the active edit window with the Replace With string. If no selection exists, the Replace With string will be inserted at the current insertion point in the active edit window. The Replace With string may be left empty to replace text with nothing. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.3.6 Replace and Find Again (T)

This command is equivalent to executing a Replace command followed by a Find Again command. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.3.7 Replace All

This command is equivalent to executing a Find Again command followed by a Replace command repeatedly until the Find Again command does not find the Search For string. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.3.8 Load Selection (K)

This command loads the current selection in the active edit window into the CLIPS knowledge base. Standard error detection and recovery routines used to load constructs from a file are also used when loading a selection (i.e., if a construct has an error in it, the rest of the construct will be skipped over until another construct to be loaded is found). This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.3.9 Batch Selection (M)

This command treats the current selection in the active edit window as if it were a batch file and executes it as a series of commands. Standard error detection and recovery routines used to load construct from a file are not used when batching a selection (i.e., if a construct has an error in it, a number of ancillary errors may be generated by subsequent parts of the same construct following the error). This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.3.10 Load Buffer

This command loads the contents of the active edit window into the CLIPS knowledge base. It is equivalent to selecting the entire buffer and executing a Load Selection command. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.4 The Commands Menu

3.4.1 Watch...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to set various watch items as enabled or disabled.

Watch items can be enabled or disabled by clicking the appropriate check box. Enabled watch items have a check in their check box. Disabled watch items have no check mark in their check box. Pressing the All button checks all of the watch item check boxes. Pressing the None button unchecks all of the watch item check boxes. Clicking the OK button exits the dialog and changes the current watch settings to those shown in the dialog. Clicking the Cancel button exits the dialog, but retains the original settings of the watch items before the dialog was entered. Clicking the Use As Default button saves the current settings in the CLIPS preferences file. These settings will be restored the next time the CLIPS application is launched.

 

This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.4.2 Options...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to set various CLIPS execution options.

The Salience Evaluation pop-up menu allows the current salience evaluation behavior to be changed (to either when-defined, when-activated, or every-cycle). The Strategy pop-up menu allows the current conflict resolution strategy to be changed (to either depth, breadth, lex, mea, complexity, simplicity, or random). The Static Constraint Checking, Dynamic Constraint Checking, Reset Global Variables, Sequence Expansion Operator Recognition, Incremental Reset, Auto‑Float Dividend, and Fact Duplication check boxes are used to enable and disable the named CLIPS option. Enabled options have a check in their check box while disabled items have none. The Incremental Reset option cannot be changed if any defrules are currently defined. Clicking the OK button exits the dialog and changes the CLIPS execution options settings to those shown in the dialog. Clicking the Cancel button exits the dialog, but retains the original settings of the CLIPS execution options before the dialog was entered. Clicking the Use As Default button saves the current settings in the CLIPS preferences file. These settings will be restored the next time the CLIPS application is launched.

 

This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.4.3 Set Commands...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to define ten “short cut” commands. These commands are accessed using command keys 0 through 9.

To change a command short cut, enter the new command in the text field to the left of the desired command key. Clicking the OK button exits the dialog and changes the command short cut settings to those shown in the dialog. Clicking the Cancel button exits the dialog, but retains the original settings of the command short cuts before the dialog was entered. Clicking the Use As Default button saves the current settings in the CLIPS preferences file. These settings will be restored the next time the CLIPS application is launched.

 

The current settings for the command short cuts are shown beneath the Set Commands... menu item in the Commands menu.

 

This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.5 The Browse Menu

3.5.1 The Module Menu

This menu displays a list of the defmodules currently defined in the CLIPS environment. A check mark is displayed by the current module. Selecting a module from the menu list changes the current module to the selected item.

3.5.2 Defrule Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defrules in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an op­eration to be performed on a defrule selected from the list of defrules currently in the knowl­edge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equivalent to issuing an undefrule command. The Refresh button will refresh the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equivalent to a refresh command. The Matches com­mand will list the matches for the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equiv­alent to a matches command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefrule command. Both the Matches and Pprint buttons echo the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Breakpoint check box is used to enable or disable a breakpoint on the currently selected defrule. Rules with a breakpoint set have a check in their check box while rules without a breakpoint have none. The Watch Activations check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a rule is activated or deactivated. If the check box for a rule is checked, then activation/deactivation messages for the rule will be printed. The Watch Firings check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a rule is executed. If the check box for a rule is checked, then execution messages for the rule will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defrule Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.5.3 Deffacts Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the deffacts in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a deffacts selected from the list of deffacts currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected deffacts. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undeffacts command The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected deffacts. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdeffacts command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Deffacts Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.5.4 Deftemplate Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the deftemplates in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a deftemplate selected from the list of deftem­plates currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected deftemplate. Pressing this but­ton is equivalent to an undeftemplate command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected deftemplate. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdeftemplate command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed whenever a fact is asserted or retracted. If the check box for a deftemplate is checked, then assert/retract messages for facts associated with the deftemplate will be printed.

 

 Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Deftemplate Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.5.5 Deffunction Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the deffunctions in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a deffunction selected from the list of deffunctions currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected deffunction. Pressing this but­ton is equivalent to an undeffunction command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected deffunction. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdeffunction command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a deffunction begins and ends execution. If the check box for a deffunction is checked, then execution messages for the deffunction will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Deffunction Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.5.6 Defglobal Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defglobals in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a defglobal selected from the list of defglobals currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defglobal. Pressing this but­ton is equivalent to an undefglobal command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defglobal. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefglobal command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when the value of a global variable is changed. If the check box for a defglobal is checked, then value change messages will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defglobal Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.5.7 Defgeneric Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defgenerics in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an op­eration to be performed on a defgeneric selected from the list of defgenerics currently in the knowl­edge base. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defgeneric Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defgeneric. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefgeneric command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defgeneric. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefgeneric command.  The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a generic function begins and ends execution. If the check box for a deffunction is checked, then execution messages for the generic function will be printed.

 

The Methods... button displays a dialog box allowing the defmethods for the currently selected defgeneric to be browsed. The dialog box that appears in response to this button allows an op­eration to be performed on a defmethod selected from the list of defmethods currently in the knowl­edge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defmethod. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefmethod command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defmethod. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefmethod command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a specific method of a generic function begins and ends execution. If the check box for a defmethod is checked, then execution messages for the method will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to return control to the Defgeneric Manager dialog box.

3.5.8 Defclass Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defclasses in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an op­eration to be performed on a defclass selected from the list of defclasses currently in the knowl­edge base. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defclass Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefclass command. The Describe button will describe the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equivalent to a describe-class command. The Browse com­mand displays the class hierarchy for the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equiv­alent to a browse-class command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefclass command. The Describe, Browse, and Pprint buttons echo the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window. 

 

The Watch Instances check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when an instance is created or deleted. If the check box for a defclass is checked, then messages will be printed whenever an instance of that class is created or deleted. The Watch Slots check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when an instance’s slot values are changed. If the check box for a defclass is checked, then messages will be printed whenever an instance of that class has a slot value changed.

 

The Message Handlers... button displays a dialog box allowing the message handlers for the currently selected class to be browsed. The dialog box that appears in response to this button allows an op­eration to be performed on a defmessage‑handler selected from the list of defmessage‑handlers currently in the knowl­edge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defmessage-handler. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefmessage-handler command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defmessage-handler. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefmessage-handler command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a message-handler begins and ends execution. If the check box for a defmessage-handler is checked, then execution messages for the message-handler will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to return control to the Defclass Manager dialog box.

3.5.9 Definstances Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the definstances in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a definstances selected from the list of definstances currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected definstances. Pressing this but­ton is equivalent to an undefinstances command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected definstances. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefinstances command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Definstances Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.5.10 Agenda Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the activations on the agenda to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows any acti­vation on the agenda to be removed or fired.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected activation from the agenda. The Fire button will place the currently selected activation at the top of the agenda (regardless of its salience). The dialog is then exited and the CLIPS command (run 1) will then be echoed to the Dialog Window, causing the activation to fire. Any number of remove operations (except the Fire button) can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Agenda Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

3.6 The Window Menu

3.6.1 Dialog Window

This command selects the Dialog Window and brings it to the front. A check mark is placed by the window name to indicated that it is the frontmost window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.6.2 Facts Window

This command selects the Facts Window and brings it to the front. If the Facts Window does not exist, it will be created. The Facts Window displays the list of facts in the fact-list. A check mark is placed by the window name to indicated that it is the frontmost window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.6.3 Agenda Window

This command selects the Agenda Window and brings it to the front. If the Agenda Window does not exist, it will be created. The Agenda Window displays the list of activations currently on the agenda. A check mark is placed by the window name to indicated that it is the frontmost window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.6.4 Instances Window

This command selects the Instances Window and brings it to the front. If the Instances Window does not exist, it will be created. The Instances Window displays the list of existing instances and their slot values. A check mark is placed by the window name to indicated that it is the frontmost window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.6.5 Globals Window

This command selects the Globals Window and brings it to the front. If the Globals Window does not exist, it will be created. The Globals Window displays the list of global variables and their current values. A check mark is placed by the window name to indicated that it is the frontmost window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.6.6 Focus Window

This command selects the Focus Window and brings it to the front. If the Focus Window does not exist, it will be created. The Focus Window displays the current focus stack. A check mark is placed by the window name to indicated that it is the frontmost window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.6.7 All Above

This command brings the Dialog Window, Facts Window, Instances Window, Globals Window, and Focus Window in front of all other windows (creating them if they do not already exist). The Dialog Window is selected as the active window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.6.8 Titled and Untitled Edit Windows

This command brings the selected edit window to the front. All edit windows appear below the All Above menu item. A check mark is placed by the window name to indicated that it is the frontmost window. A diamond appears next to an edit window title that has changes that need to be saved. The diamond is hollow if the edit window is not frontmost, otherwise it is filled. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

3.7 Creating The Macintosh Executables

3.7.1 Building the CLIPS Interface Executable Using Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.6

The following steps describe how to create the Mac OS X interface version of CLIPS using Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.6. Note that some familiarity with building applications using Metrowerks CodeWarrior is assumed. Section 2 of the Advanced Programming Guide (which describes in general how to install and tailor CLIPS) should also be read before attempting to build the Macintosh executables.

 

1)   The following source files are needed to build the interface in addition to the source files for the standard CLIPS executable:

 

alpha.h

appevent.h

apprsrcs.h

brwsmenu.h

clpscrap.h

cooldlog.h

displayw.h

dlogmngr.h

dsplio.h

dsplscrl.h

dsplwdrg.h

editdlog.h

editmenu.h

editscrl.h

editw.h

editwdrg.h

execdlog.h

factdlog.h

filemenu.h

fontpick.h

gnrcdlog.h

interface.h

kbstatw.h

macinit.h

mainloop.h

menucmds.h

menuhndl.h

mpsrrsrc.h

prcddlog.h

prefernc.h

print.h

ruledlog.h

search.h

statusw.h

stnrdmac.h

undo.h

window.h

 

 

 

 

alpha.c

appevent.c

apprsrcs.c

brwsmenu.c

cooldlog.c

displayw.c

dlogmngr.c

dsplio.c

dsplscrl.c

dsplwdrg.c

editdlog.c

editmenu.c

editscrl.c

editw.c

editwdrg.c

execdlog.c

factdlog.c

filemenu.c

fontpick.c

gnrcdlog.c

kbstatw.c

macfuncs.c

macinit.c

macmain.c

mainloop.c

menucmds.c

menuhndl.c

prcddlog.c

prefernc.c

print.c

ruledlog.c

scrap.c

search.c

statusw.c

stnrdmac.c

undo.c

window.c

 

 

 

 

CLIPS.rsrc

CLIPS.icns

CLIPStext.icns

CLIPS IDE.plc

CLIPS IDE-Info.plist

 

 

 

2)    Create a folder named CLIPS Project. Place the file CLIPS.mcp into this folder.

2)

3)   Create a folder named CLIPS Source and place it in the CLIPS Project folder. Copy all of the standard CLIPS source code into the CLIPS Source folder. Create a folder named Interface Source and place it in the CLIPS Project folder. Copy all of the source code files for the Macintosh interface listed in step 1 into the Interface Source folder.

 

4)   Double click on the CLIPS.mcp file.

 

5)   Edit the setup.h file. Set the compiler directive flag MAC_MCW to 1 and set compiler directive flag WINDOW_INTERFACE to 1.

 

6)   Under the Project menu, select Set Default Target and choose CLIPS IDE.

 

7)   Under the Project Menu choose Make. The CLIPS IDE executable will be placed in the CLIPS Project directory.

3.7.2 Building the CLIPS Console Executable Using Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.6

The following steps describe how to create the Macintosh console version of CLIPS using Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.6:

 

1)   Follow steps 1 through 5 in section 3.7.1.

 

2)   Under the Project menu, select Set Default Target and choose CLIPS Console.

 

3)   Under the Project Menu choose Make. The CLIPS Console executable will be placed in the CLIPS Project directory.

3.7.3 Building the CLIPS Interface Executable Using Xcode 2.3

The following steps describe how to create the MacOS X interface version of CLIPS using Xcode 2.3:

 

1)   The source files used in step 1 in section 3.7.1 are also needed for building the Xcode version.

 

2)   Create a folder named CLIPS Project. Place the file CLIPS.xcodeproj into this folder.

 

3)   Create a folder named CLIPS Source and place it in the CLIPS Project folder. Copy all of the standard CLIPS source code into the CLIPS Source folder. Create a folder named Interface Source and place it in the CLIPS Project folder. Copy all of the source code files for the Macintosh interface listed in step 1 into the Interface Source folder.

 

4)   Double click on the CLIPS.xcodeproj file.

 

5)   Edit the setup.h file. Set the compiler directive flag MAC_XCD to 1 and set compiler directive flag WINDOW_INTERFACE to 1.

 

6)   In the project window, select CLIPS IDE from the target drop-down menu. Under the Project Menu, select Set Active Build Configuration and choose Deployment.

 

7)   Under the Build Menu choose Build. The CLIPS IDE executable will be placed in the build\Deployment directory.

3.7.4 Building the CLIPS Console Executable Using Xcode 2.3

The following steps describe how to create the Macintosh console version of CLIPS using Xcode 2.3:

 

1)   Follow steps 1 through 5 in section 3.7.3.

 

2)   In the project window, select CLIPS Console from the target drop-down menu. Under the Project Menu, select Set Active Build Configuration and choose Deployment.

 

3)   Under the Build Menu choose Build. The CLIPS Console executable will be placed in the build\Deployment directory.

 


Section 4 - CLIPS X Window Interface

This section provides a brief summary of the CLIPS 6.2 X Window interface (xclips) for systems running X Windows. The menus are listed in the left to right order in which they appear in the menu bar. The commands within each menu are also listed in the order in which they appear in the menu.

 

The rest of the xclips is straightforward. Commands can be entered directly in the dialog window in a fashion similar to the standard CLIPS command line interface.

 

By default, xclips is black and white. A resource file, Xclips, is provided to add color to the interface. By default X will look for this resource file in the user’s home directory. A user can modify his or her resource file if he or she wishes; however, it could be more convenient if he or she uses the provided color utility, color. The color utility has to be in the same directory with xclips, so it could be executed by xclips (see section 4.5.8).

 

The execution of the current command or CLIPS program can be halted by pressing Ctrl-H

 

Some menu commands are available while CLIPS is executing a user program. Among these commands are the Options... menu item, the Watch... menu item, the Dribble... menu item, and all menu items in Window menu. The command summary for each menu item indicates whether it is available while CLIPS is executing. In addition, windows may be moved and resized while CLIPS is executing.

4.1 The  Menu

This command displays version information about CLIPS. Click the left mouse button in this window to kill it. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.2 The File Menu

4.2.1 Edit... (^V)

This command displays a file selection box, allowing the user to select a text file to edit. A new window will be opened for each file (see section 4.6 for more details). This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.2.2 Complete... (^C)

This command “completes” the symbol currently being entered in the display window. The symbol to be completed is always the last symbol in the display window. If no possible completions exist, a beep is sounded. If only one possible completion exists (e.g. “deftemplat” for “deftemplate”), then the symbol is automatically completed. If more than one completion exists, a dialog is displayed showing all possible completions. The following dialog shows the possible completions for the symbol “get”:

Click the Select button to complete the symbol with the current selection. Click the Cancel button to terminate the dialog without any command completion. Note that symbols defined by the user (as part of a construct or a CLIPS data structure such as a fact or instance) will also be listed for command completion. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.2.3 Load... (^L)

This command displays a file selection box, allowing the user to select a text file to be loaded into the knowledge base. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (load <file-name>). When this command is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS load command will be echoed to the main window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.2.4 Load Batch...

This command displays a file selection box, allowing the user to select a text file to be executed as a batch file. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (batch <file-name>). When this command is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS batch command will be echoed to the main window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.2.5 Load Binary...

This command displays a file selection box, allowing the user to select a file to be loaded as a binary image. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (bload <file-name>). When this command is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS bload command will be echoed to the main window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.2.6 Dribble... (^N)

This command displays a file selection box, allowing the user to select a text file in which subsequent display window output will be stored. This com­mand is equivalent to the CLIPS command (dribble‑on <file-name>). When this com­mand is chosen and a file is selected, the appropriate CLIPS dribble‑on command will be echoed to the main window and executed. While the dribble file is active, this menu command will be modified to contain an X Window logo in the left margin beside the command. Selecting the menu command at this time will close the dribble text file and remove the X Window logo. This is equivalent to the CLIPS command (dribble-off). This command is available when CLIPS is executing (however the commands will not be echoed to the dialog window).

4.2.7 Save Binary...

This command allows the constructs currently stored in CLIPS to be saved as a binary image. A dialog box will appear to prompt for the new file name in which to store the binary image. This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (bsave <file‑name>). When this command is chosen and a file is entered, the appropriate CLIPS bsave command will be echoed to the main window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.2.8 Quit (^Q)

This command exits CLIPS. After choosing this command a Restart option is prompted. This option will restart CLIPS using any new color resources created by the color utility (see section 4.5.8). This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.3 The Execution Menu

4.3.1 Reset (^E)

This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (reset). When this command is chosen, the CLIPS command (reset) will be echoed to the main window and exe­cuted. If activations are currently on the agenda, a dialog box will appear issuing a warning and providing an opportunity to cancel this command. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.3.2 Run (^R)

This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (run). When this command is chosen, the CLIPS command (run) will be echoed to the main window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.3.3 Step (^T)

This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (run 1). When this command is chosen, the CLIPS command (run 1) will be echoed to the main window and executed. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.3.4 Watch...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to set various watch items as enabled or disabled.

Watch items can be enabled or disabled by clicking its check box. Enabled watch items have a check in their check box. Disabled watch items have no check mark in their check box. Pressing the All button checks all of the watch item check boxes. Pressing the None button unchecks all of the watch item check boxes. Clicking the Okay button exits the dialog and changes the current watch settings to those shown in the dialog. Clicking the Cancel button exits the dialog, but retains the original settings of the watch items before the dialog was entered.

 

This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

4.3.5 Options...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the user to set various CLIPS execution options.

The Salience Evaluation pop-up menu allows the current salience evaluation behavior to be changed (to either when-defined, when-activated, or every-cycle). The Strategy pop-up menu allows the current conflict resolution strategy to be changed (to either depth, breadth, lex, mea, complexity, simplicity, or random). The Static Constraint Checking, Dynamic Constraint Checking, Reset Global Variables, Sequence Expansion Operator Recognition, Incremental Reset, Auto‑Float Dividend, and Fact Duplication check boxes are used to enable and disable the named CLIPS option. Enabled options have a check in their check box while disabled items have none. The Incremental Reset option cannot be changed if any defrules are currently defined. Clicking the OK button exits the dialog and changes the CLIPS execution options settings to those shown in the dialog. Clicking the Cancel button exits the dialog, but retains the original settings of the CLIPS execution options before the dialog was entered.

 

This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

4.3.6 Clear CLIPS (^K)

This command is equivalent to the CLIPS command (clear). When this command is chosen, the CLIPS command (clear) will be echoed to the main window and exe­cuted. A dialog box will appear issuing a warning and providing an opportunity to cancel this command. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.3.7 Clear Window (^N)

This command clears the dialog window. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.4 The Browse Menu

4.4.1 Module Menu

This menu displays a dialog box which contains the list of the defmodules currently defined in the CLIPS environment. A current module is hilighted. Selecting a module from the list changes the current module to the selected item.

When finish selecting the module click the Done button to remove the dialog.

4.4.2 Defrule Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defrules in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an op­eration to be performed on a defrule selected from the list of defrules currently in the knowl­edge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equivalent to issuing an undefrule command. The Refresh button will refresh the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equivalent to a refresh command. The Matches com­mand will list the matches for the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equiv­alent to a matches command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defrule. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefrule command. Both the Matches and Pprint buttons echo the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Breakpoint check box is used to enable or disable a breakpoint on the currently selected defrule. Rules with a breakpoint set have a check in their check box while rules without a breakpoint have none. The Watch Activations check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a rule is activated or deactivated. If the check box for a rule is checked, then activation/deactivation messages for the rule will be printed. The Watch Firings check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a rule is executed. If the check box for a rule is checked, then execution messages for the rule will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defrule Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.4.3 Deffacts Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the deffacts in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a deffacts selected from the list of deffacts currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected deffacts. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undeffacts command The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected deffacts. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdeffacts command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Deffacts Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.4.4 Deftemplate Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the deftemplates in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a deftemplate selected from the list of deftem­plates currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected deftemplate. Pressing this but­ton is equivalent to an undeftemplate command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected deftemplate. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdeftemplate command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed whenever a fact is asserted or retracted. If the check box for a deftemplate is checked, then assert/retract messages for facts associated with the deftemplate will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Deftemplate Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.4.5 Deffunction Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the deffunctions in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a deffunction selected from the list of deffunctions currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected deffunction. Pressing this but­ton is equivalent to an undeffunction command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected deffunction. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdeffunction command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a deffunction begins and ends execution. If the check box for a deffunction is checked, then execution messages for the deffunction will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Deffunction Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.4.6 Defglobal Manager

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defglobals in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an op­eration to be performed on a defglobal selected from the list of defglobals currently in the knowl­edge base. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defglobal Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defglobal. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefglobal command The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected deffacts. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefglobal command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defglobal Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.4.7 Defgeneric Manager

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defgenerics in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an op­eration to be performed on a defgeneric selected from the list of defgenerics currently in the knowl­edge base. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defgeneric Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defgeneric. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefgeneric command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defgeneric. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefgeneric command.  The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a generic function begins and ends execution. If the check box for a deffunction is checked, then execution messages for the generic function will be printed.

 

The Methods... button displays a dialog box allowing the defmethods for the currently selected defgeneric to be browsed. The dialog box that appears in response to this button allows an op­eration to be performed on a defmethod selected from the list of defmethods currently in the knowl­edge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defmethod. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefmethod command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defmethod. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefmethod command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a specific method of a generic function begins and ends execution. If the check box for a defmethod is checked, then execution messages for the method will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to return control to the Defgeneric Manager dialog box.

4.4.8 Defclass Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the defclasses in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an op­eration to be performed on a defclass selected from the list of defclasses currently in the knowl­edge base. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Defclass Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefclass command. The Describe button will describe the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equivalent to a describe-class command. The Browse com­mand displays the class hierarchy for the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equiv­alent to a browse-class command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defclass. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefclass command. The Describe, Browse, and Pprint buttons echo the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window. 

 

The Watch Instances check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when an instance is created or deleted. If the check box for a defclass is checked, then messages will be printed whenever an instance of that class is created or deleted. The Watch Slots check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when an instance’s slot values are changed. If the check box for a defclass is checked, then messages will be printed whenever an instance of that class has a slot value changed.

 

The Message Handlers... button displays a dialog box allowing the message handlers for the currently selected class to be browsed. The dialog box that appears in response to this button allows an op­eration to be performed on a defmessage‑handler selected from the list of defmessage‑handlers currently in the knowl­edge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected defmessage-handler. Pressing this button is equivalent to an undefmessage-handler command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected defmessage-handler. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefmessage-handler command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window.

 

The Watch check box is used to enable or disable the messages that are printed when a message-handler begins and ends execution. If the check box for a defmessage-handler is checked, then execution messages for the message-handler will be printed.

 

Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to return control to the Defclass Manager dialog box.

4.4.9 Definstances Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the definstances in the knowledge base to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows an operation to be performed on a definstances selected from the list of definstances currently in the knowledge base.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected definstances. Pressing this but­ton is equivalent to an undefinstances command. The Pprint button will pretty print the currently selected definstances. Pressing this button is equivalent to a ppdefinstances command. The Pprint button echoes the equivalent CLIPS command and resulting output to the dialog window. Any number of operations can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Definstances Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.4.10 Agenda Manager...

This command displays a dialog box which allows the activations on the agenda to be examined. The dialog box that appears in response to this command allows any acti­vation on the agenda to be removed or fired.

The Remove button will remove the currently selected activation from the agenda. The Fire button will place the currently selected activation at the top of the agenda (regardless of its salience). The dialog is then exited and the CLIPS command (run 1) will then be echoed to the Dialog Window, causing the activation to fire. Any number of remove operations (except the Fire button) can be executed from this dialog. When finished, click the Done button to remove the dialog. The Agenda Manager... command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.5 The Window Menu

4.5.1 Facts Window

This command creates or deletes the Facts Window. The Facts Window displays the list of facts in the fact-list. An X Window logo is placed by the window name to indicated that it exists. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

4.5.2 Agenda Window

This command creates or deletes the Agenda Window. The Agenda Window displays the list of activations currently on the agenda. An X Window logo is placed by the window name to indicated that it exists. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

4.5.3 Instances Window

This command creates or deletes the Instances Window. The Instances Window displays the list of existing instances and their slot values. A check mark is placed by the window name to indicated that it exists. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

4.5.4 Globals Window

This command creates or deletes the Globals Window. The Globals Window displays the list of global variables and their current values. A check mark is placed by the window name to indicated that it exists. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

4.5.5 Focus Window

This command selects the Focus Window and brings it to the front. If the Focus Window does not exist, it will be created. The Focus Window displays the current focus stack. A check mark is placed by the window name to indicated that it is the frontmost window. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

4.5.6 All

This command creates the Dialog Window, Facts Window, Instances Window, and Globals Window if they do not already exist. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

4.5.7 None

This command deletes the Dialog Window, Facts Window, Instances Window, and Globals Window if they exist. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

4.5.8 Command Line CLIPS (^Z)

This command creates a xterm window and starts a command line version of CLIPS. This window will still exist after the xclips interface has ended. This command is available when CLIPS is executing.

4.5.9 Color Utility

This command will execute the color utility for the xclips interface. To use the new colors the Quit command with the Restart (see section 4.2.9) option must be chosen.

4.5.9.1 How To Use The Color Utility

To change the colors of a window in the X Window interface for CLIPS, the user must:

1)    Select the appropriate button for the window at the bottom of the color utility.

2)    Select the item that needs to be changed at the top of the color utility.

3)    Select the color that is listed on the left of the color utility.

 

The instant visual changes on the window will help the user to decide which colors he/she likes best. There are 14 different buttons at the bottom of the color utility that the user can select. They are listed as follows:

 

Dialog Window: The main interactive window that accepts input from users and prints out output from CLIPS.

 

Facts Window: The fact window that contains all the facts in the fact base.

 

Instance Window: The instance window that contains all the instances.

 

Globals: The global window that contains all the global variables and their values.

 

Agenda Window: The agenda window that contains all the activated rules.

 

Focus Window: The focus window that contains all the modules in the stack.

 

Button Box: The box that contains all the top level menu buttons. Only the background color can be changed here.

 

Menu Buttons: All the top level menu buttons.

 

Pulldown Menus: All the pulldown menus.

 

Managers: All the defconstruct manager windows (under the Browse menu).

 

Managers Button: There are regular buttons and a Cancel button, which the user can modify their colors, in a manager window. Their foreground color and their border color will always be the same.

 

Confirmation: The confirmation dialog box.

 

File: The file selection window which popups when the name of a file is needed.

 

Watch/Options: The windows that allow the user to select the watched items and the options (created using the Watch and Options menu items).

 

Wtch/Opt Bttns : Toggle buttons and command buttons in the Watch or Options menu items.

 

On the top of the color utility there are five buttons the user can select, Foreground, Background, Border, Default, Quit. When the foreground and border colors are not allowed to change, the label of the Foreground and Border buttons will change to N/A or to something else that appropriate for the current selected button at the bottom of the color utility. Clicking on Default will give the user the default colors. When the user is happy with his/her selections and wants to save them, she/he can click on Save and Quit under the Quit menu. Selecting Save and Quit instructs the color utility to save the current color resource setting in the file Xclips which must reside in the user’s home directory.

4.6 The Editor

This section provides a brief summary for the editor interface. The editor is an instance of the Athena asciiText widget, which comes with X and is similar to the emacs editor.

4.6.1 File

4.6.1.1 Save

This command displays a dialog box allowing the user to overwrite the old file with the edited file or cancel the save command. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.1.2 Save As

This command allows the edit window to be saved under a new name. A dialog box will appear to prompt for the new file name. The name of the editing window will be changed to the new file name. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.1.3 Revert

This command restores the edit window to the last saved version of the file in the buffer. Any changes made since the file was last saved will be discarded. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.1.4 Load Selection

This command loads the current selection in the active edit window into the CLIPS knowledge base. Standard error detection and recovery routines used to load constructs from a file are also used when loading a selection (i.e., if a construct has an error in it, the rest of the construct will be skipped over until another construct to be loaded is found). This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.1.5 Batch Selection

This command treats the current selection in the active edit window as if it were a batch file and executes it as a series of commands. Standard error detection and recovery routines used to load construct from a file are not used when batching a selection (i.e., if a construct has an error in it, a number of ancillary errors may be generated by subsequent parts of the same construct following the error). This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.1.6 Load Buffer

This command loads the contents of the active edit window into the CLIPS knowledge base. It is equivalent to selecting the entire buffer and executing a Load Selection command. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.1.7 Exit

This command exits the editor. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.2 Edit

4.6.2.1 Complete... (^C)

This command “completes” the symbol currently being entered in the active edit window. The symbol being completed is the current selection, or if no selection exists, the symbol to the left of the current insertion point. If no possible completions exist, a beep is sounded. If only one possible completion exists (e.g. “deftemplat” for “deftemplate”), then the symbol is automatically completed. If more than one completion exists, a dialog is displayed showing all possible completions. The following dialog shows the possible completions for the symbol “get”:

Click the Select button to complete the symbol with the current selection. Click the Cancel button to be terminate the dialog without any command completion. Note that symbols defined by the user (as part of a construct or a CLIPS data structure such as a fact or instance) will also be listed for command completion. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.2.2 Cut

This command removes selected text in the active edit window and places it in the Clipboard. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.2.3 Paste

This command copies the contents of the Clipboard to the selection point in the edit window. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.2.4 Search/Replace... (^S/^R)

This command displays the search/replace dialog allowing the user to search for a string or search for a string and replace it with another string. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.2.5 Balance (^B)

This command operates on the current selection in the active edit window by attempting to find the smallest selection containing the current selection which has balanced parentheses. Repeat­edly using this command will select larger and larger selections of text until a balanced se­lection cannot be found. The balance command is a purely textual operation and can be confused by parentheses found in strings. The cursor has to be placed to the left of the parenthesis. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.2.6 Beginning of File

This command will scroll the insertion point to the beginning of the editor file and then scroll the minimum amount necessary to make the new insert point location visible. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.2.7 End of File

This command will scroll the insertion point to the end of the editor file and then scroll the minimum amount necessary to make the new insert point location visible. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.3 Font

4.6.3.1 5x8

This command will set the editor font to 5x8. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.3.2 6x10

This command will set the editor font to 6x10. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.3.3 6x13bold

This command will set the editor font to 6x13bold. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.3.4 7x13bold

This command will set the editor font to 7x13bold. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.3.5 8x13bold

This command will set the editor font to 8x13bold. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.3.6 9x15bold

This command will set the editor font to 9x15bold. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.3.7 10x20

This command will set the editor font to 10x20. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.3.8 12x24

This command will set the editor font to 12x20. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.6.4 Help

4.6.4.1 Key Bindings

This command displays a list of all key bindings available for the editor. This command is not available when CLIPS is executing.

4.7 Building The CLIPS X Window Interface

The following steps describe how to create the X Window machine specific version of CLIPS. This version of the CLIPS X Window interface requires X Window system release 11R6.4 and has been tested on a Macintosh running MacOS X 10.2.6 with Tenon Xtools version 1.2. Note that some familiarity with building applications using C compilers in a UNIX environment is assumed. Section 2 of the Advanced Programming Guide (which describes in general how to install and tailor CLIPS) should also be read before attempting to build the X Window executables.

 

1)   The following source files are needed to build the interface in addition to the source files for the standard CLIPS executable:

 

xclips.h

xclipstext.h

xedit.h

xmain.h

xmenu.h

xmenu_exec.h

xmenu_file.h

xmenu_opt.h

xmenu_watch.h

xmenu_wind.h

xsetup.h

 

 

 

 

 

xclips.c

xclipstext.c

xedit.c

xmain.c

xmenu.c

xmenu_exec.c

xmenu_file.c

xmenu_opt.c

xmenu_watch.c

xmenu_wind.c

 

 

 

 

 

 

Xclips

 

 

 

 

      The file Xclips is a resource file that must reside in the user’s home directory in order for the X Window interface to appear in color. If this file cannot be found, the X Window interface will appear in black and white.

 

2)   The compiler directive flags UNIX_7 and WINDOW_INTERFACE in the file setup.h should be set to 1.

 

3)  The X Window system interface version of CLIPS can be created by compiling all the standard CLIPS .c files and the .c files listed in step 1. The file xmain.c replaces the file main.c used in the standard CLIPS (and thus main.c should not be compiled). The resulting object files should then be linked with the following libraries: Xaw, Xmu, Xt, Xext, X11, m. An example UNIX command for compiling xclips is shown following:

 

      gcc -o xclips *.c -lXaw -lXmu -lXt -lXext -lX11 -lm

 

      Alternately, a makefile named “makefile.x” is included with the X Windows source. This file can be renamed “makefile” and used with the make program.

 

4)   The color utility is a stand alone application. The source code files for this application are color.c, default.h, and colors.h. The executable version of the color utility can be generated by compiling color.c and linking it with the following libraries: Xaw, Xmu, Xt, Xext, X11. An example UNIX command for compiling the color utility is shown following:

 

      gcc -o color color.c -lXaw -lXmu -lXt -lXext -lX11

 

 


Appendix A ‑ Update Release Notes

The following sections denote the changes and bug fixes for CLIPS versions 6.01, 6.02, 6.03, and 6.04, 6.05, and 6.10, 6.20, 6.21, 6.23, and 6.24.

A.1 Version 6.24

     Compiler Support ‑ The following compilers are now supported.

 

     Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.6 for Mac OS X.

 

     Xcode 2.3 for Mac OS X.

 

     Microsoft Visual C++ .NET 2003 for Windows.

 

     Windows Interface Bug Fixes ‑ The following bugs were fixed by the 6.24 release:

 

     Artifacts left by the insertion caret in the dialog window during scrolling are fixed.

 

     The resize cursor did not appear to indicate a window could be resized.

 

     Windows Interface Changes ‑ The following enhancements were added by the 6.24 release:

 

     The position and size of the application’s MDI frame window is save and restored between invocations of the program.

A.2 Version 6.23

     Compiler Support ‑ The following compilers are now supported.

 

     Metrowerks CodeWarrior 9.4 for Mac OS X and Windows.

 

     Xcode 1.2 for Mac OS X.

A.3 Version 6.21

     Windows Interface Bug Fixes ‑ The following bugs were fixed by the 6.21 release:

 

     An array index error associated with the module menu was fixed.

 

     Macintosh Interface Bug Fixes ‑ The following bugs were fixed by the 6.21 release:

 

     The status windows were not updating properly.

 

     X Windows Interface Bug Fixes ‑ The following bugs were fixed by the 6.21 release:

 

     Numerous compilation problems were fixed.

A.4 Version 6.20

     Windows Interface Changes ‑ The following enhancements were added by the 6.20 release:

 

     CLIPS engine and editor applications combined into a single Windows 95/98/NT Multiple Document Interface application.

 

     Macintosh Interface Changes ‑ The following enhancements were added by the 6.20 release:

 

     MacOS X support.

A.5 Version 6.10

     Windows Interface Bug Fixes ‑ The following bugs were fixed by the 6.10 release:

 

     The Windows 95 CLIPS interface did not properly display strings containing two sequential carriage returns.

 

     Refresh and scroll bar bugs occurred when running the Windows 95 CLIPS interface under Windows NT.

 

     Macintosh Interface Changes ‑ The following enhancements were added by the 6.10 release:

 

     DOS/Unix line breaks are automatically converted to MacOS line breaks when a file is opened using the Open… menu item from the File menu.

A.6 Version 6.05

     Windows Editor Interface Bug Fixes ‑ The following bugs were fixed by the 6.05 release:

 

     If Quit Editor was selected from the File Menu before changes were saved, the cancel button of the save dialog did not abort the quit.

 

     X Windows Interface Bug Fixes ‑ The following bugs were fixed by the 6.05 release:

 

     A crash bug could occur in file dialogs when changing directories.

 

     Macintosh Interface Changes ‑ The following enhancements were added by the 6.05 release:

 

     In an editing window, the left margin is padded with the same number of spaces as found in the left margin of the previous line when the return key is pressed.

 

     A mark is placed by edit buffer window in the Windows menu to indicate whether it have been changed.

 

     Home, end, page up, page down, left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, and down arrow keys work for the Display Window and edit windows.

 

     Added Comment, Uncomment, and Select All menu items to the Edit Menu.

 

     Window position, selection, scroll positions, and font are remembered for edit windows. The position of the Display Window and other status windows are remembered.

 

     When a right parenthesis is typed, the matching left parenthesis will be momentarily highlighted.

 

     Watch, execution, and other preferences are now stored in a preference file and restored the next time the application is launched.

 

     Edit windows now contain a constructs pop-up menu in the lower left corner containing a list of constructs found in the window text.

 

     The  = command key is now used for the Replace menu item.

 

     The  T command key is now used for the Replace & Find Again menu item.

 

     Enter Find String and Find Selection menu items were added to the Buffer menu.

 

     The Execution menu has been renamed to the Command menu. The Reset, Run, Step, and Clear menu items have been removed. Ten user definable commands now displayed in this menu along with a Set Commands... menu item for defining them.